Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge and Prince William, Duke of Cambridge visit Middle Temple on October 8, 2012 in London, England. (Photo by Chris Jackson - WPA Pool/Getty Images)
Janice Lloyd and Liz Szabo, USA TODAY
Britain's Prince William and wife Catherine are expecting their first child, but her severe morning sickness is attracting the most questions Monday.
The Duchess of Cambridge has been hospitalized for severe vomiting, called hyperemesis gravidarum, according to St. James's Palace.
While the condition doesn't typically endanger mother or child, "it is pretty miserable," says Kecia Gaither, director of maternal fetal medicine at Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center in Brooklyn, N.Y.
Less than 1% of all pregnant women are hospitalized for vomiting, says George Macones, an obstetrician-gynecologist at Washington University in St. Louis and a spokesman for the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
The college advises women who can't keep anything down for 24 hours or more to call their doctors. In severe cases, such as Catherine's, women can become dehydrated because of lack of fluids.
These women may need to be hospitalized for a few days so doctors can administer intravenous fluids, as well as anti-nausea medications, such as vitamin B6, a drug called Zofran or others, Macones says.
Doctors may also need to give these women potassium or other electrolytes to restore their normal balance, Gaither says. In "exceedingly rare" cases, women may need to be cared for in the intensive care unit. Doctors can typically intervene early, however, to prevent serious complications.
In most cases, nausea and vomiting go away by the second trimester, or about 13 or 14 weeks into the pregnancy, Macones says. A few unlucky women may have severe vomiting throughout pregnancy, and require intravenous nutrition.
There's no reason to believe that excessive vomiting is caused by a problem with the baby, Macones says. However, the condition can be more common in women carrying twins or triplets. Doctors believe the cause of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy to be rapidly rising blood levels of a hormone called HCG, or human chorionic gonadotropin, which is released by the placenta, according to the National Institutes of Health.