WASHINGTON — Daylight saving time begins Sunday and as Americans "spring forward" and lose an hour of sleep, many states have passed measures to stay on daylight saving time permanently -- a move that some have called "lock the clock." In some cases, they've floated ideas to get around it.
In almost all the cases that have been approved by states, it requires a literal act of Congress. Under federal law, states are allowed to opt out of daylight saving time and remain on standard time, but are not allowed to remain on daylight time. In 2021, a bipartisan group of lawmakers in Congress once again proposed staying on daylight saving time year-round with the Sunshine Protection Act.
For some states, they're willing to go forward with it as long as a few of their neighbors do the same.
There's even been a suggestion that some states leave the eastern time zone entirely and adopt a new one used by parts of Canada and a couple U.S. territories.
In the last four years, 18 states have passed legislation or resolutions supporting year-round daylight saving time, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures.
An analysis from the NCSL found that so far in 2022, at least 28 states are considering new or 2021 carryover bills addressing daylight saving time.
Here is where each state stands in the effort to move to daylight saving time all year long. Again, Congress would need to act before states that have enacted laws can make the change.
In May 2021, Alabama passed an act that would have the state permanently observe daylight saving time. That bill went into effect in August. The state now waits for any potential repeal of the federal mandate.
State Rep. Dan Ortiz introduced House Bill 31 in Feb. 2021 to recognize daylight saving year-round if Congress makes the move by 2030. This bill is still pending in the Alaska state legislature.
Arizona, like Hawaii, doesn’t observe daylight saving time, meaning Arizona observes Mountain Standard Time year-round. However, Navajo Nation, which occupies the northeastern part of the state, does observe daylight saving time. That means from May to November every year, Navajo Nation is an hour ahead of the rest of the state of Arizona.
In Dec. 2020, Republican Johnny Rye introduced a bill to the Arkansas House which would permit the state to observe daylight saving time year-round. The bill passed the House 71-24 and made it to the Senate committee of State Agencies and Government Affairs, but it bill failed to pass during the legislative session.
California Assembly member Steven Choi introduced a bill in Feb. 2022 that would set the state’s “standard” time to daylight saving time, once the federal government gives the okay. Choi's bill would also include asking voters during "the next statewide general election" to approve a change to year-round standard time.
A similar proposal in the California Assembly died on the Senate floor in 2020.
Keeping Coloradans from changing clocks for daylight saving time has been unsuccessful for many years. The latest 2022 push is by State Sen. Jeff Bridges, D-Greenwood Village, and State Sen. Ray Scott, R-Grand Junction. It would place a question on the November ballot to keep Colorado on standard time -- winter hours.
Staying on daylight saving time would require approval by U.S. Congress. Staying on standard time can be done without an Act of Congress.
Two separate bills were introduced in Connecticut in 2021 that might have gotten the state around the necessary congressional approval. They would have led the state to adopt Atlantic Standard Time (AST) as its official time zone, provided Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York enacted similar legislation. Neither bill, however, was voted on.
Atlantic Standard Time is used by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. When the U.S. is on standard time, AST is one hour ahead of Eastern Standard Time (EST). But when the eastern time zone springs forward, AST stays put -- effectively staying on daylight saving time year-round.
In 2019, Delaware passed a bill for the state to permanently remain on daylight saving time, but it was contingent on Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland doing the same.
Florida became the first state to pass a resolution to observe daylight saving time year-round in 2018, federal statute pending.
In 2021, Georgia's legislature passed a permanent Daylight Saving Time law that was signed by Gov. Brian Kemp. But until Congress changes the law, nothing will change with Georgia's time.
Hawaii, like Arizona, doesn’t observe daylight saving time. Federal law permits states to opt out of daylight savings but does not allow them to observe it year-round. In 2011, a bill was introduced to the Hawaii House that would have the state opt in, but it never passed.
Idaho shares two time zones. The southern part is in the Mountain time zone, while the northern panhandle is in the Pacific time zone along with Washington state. The Idaho legislature passed a measure in 2020 which was signed into law stating that if Washington makes daylight saving time its permanent time, then Northern Idaho will do the same.
At least seven bills were introduced in the Illinois House in 2021 regarding daylight saving time. Each would either make daylight saving time permanent in the state or make Illinois exempt from the federal Uniform Time Act. There has been no action on any of these bills since March 2021.
Indiana didn't observe daylight saving time until 2006. While the majority of counties in Indiana are in the Eastern time zone, 18 counties in the northwest and southwest parts of the state are in the Central time zone. A check of the Indiana General Assembly shows no pending legislation related to year-round daylight saving time.
The Iowa House passed a bill in March 2022 that would make daylight saving time the official time of the state. But even if the Iowa Senate and Gov. Kim Reynolds approve the plan, it wouldn't take effect until there's federal approval.
While Kansas lawmakers have previously proposed moving to daylight saving time year-round, the proposals have not been voted on by the state legislature.
While Kentucky lawmakers have previously pre-filed bills proposing a move to daylight saving time year-round, the measures have not been voted on by the state legislature.
House Bill 132, making daylight saving time permanent in Louisiana, was signed into law in 2020. Congress just needs to act.
In 2019, Maine enacted a law to stay on Eastern Daylight Time all year long, but only if Congress acts to allow it. In 2021, Maine commissioned a study on the topic.
Maryland House Bill 1013, which would make Eastern Daylight Time the standard time for the state, passed the House in 2021, but stalled in a Senate committee. A separate but similar Senate bill, SB 840, was also introduced in 2021 and ended up stalled in the same committee.
Massachusetts commissioned a study in 2017 that backed year-round daylight saving time. Since then, the state legislature has considered multiple proposals related to daylight saving time; however, none of the measures have passed. Sen. Ed Markey, D-Mass., has been one of the U.S. Senators pushing to ditch the biannual time changes.
Michigan's House of Representatives passed a bill in April 2021 to move to year-round daylight saving time as long as Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania also made the switch. The Michigan bill was sent to the Senate, which has yet to vote on the measure.
The Minnesota legislature approved a plan in 2021 to permanently observe daylight saving time, pending congressional approval.
Mississippi lawmakers passed legislation in 2021 for year-round daylight saving time, pending congressional approval.
In 2021, lawmakers in Missouri proposed a bill that would permanently put the state at daylight saving time, if three of eight bordering states follow suit. The Missouri House approved the plan, but the state Senate failed to vote on the measure before the session ended.
In 2022, House lawmakers have proposed three more bills on daylight saving time.
Montana passed and signed into law in May 2021 a measure to keep the state in daylight saving time year-round if Congress or the U.S. Department of Transportation approves. Three of these states must also go on full-year daylight saving first: Idaho, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.
A bill under consideration in the Nebraska legislature would move the state to daylight saving time year-round. Before it takes effect, Congress would need to give the go ahead and three adjacent states would need to adopt similar laws backing the time change.
A Nevada lawmaker introduced a measure in 2021 to end the twice-yearly clock changes. The plan would have directed the state to adopt either Pacific Daylight Time or Pacific Standard Time year-round — depending on what California does — to keep time zones standardized throughout the region. But the bill died in April.
In 2021, a New Hampshire lawmaker filed a bill that would move the state to Atlantic Standard Time -- similar to what was proposed in Connecticut above -- throughout the year. It would only go forward if Massachusetts and Maine also made the move. The House bill failed.
In 2022, a New Hampshire lawmaker proposed a bill that would proclaim March as "Sleep Awareness Month" and call on the governor to urge the federal government to let states adopt daylight saving time year round.
In 2021 and 2022, New Jersey lawmakers in the State Senate and State Assembly proposed establishing daylight saving time as the time year-round, if Congress gives its approval. The measures are still pending.
The New Mexico Senate approved a bill this year that would have made Mountain Daylight Time the state’s permanent time, if Congress gave the go ahead. The measure was rejected by a House committee.
A number of state lawmakers have proposed making daylight saving time permanent in New York, should Congress do its part. If state lawmakers approve the plan, New York’s pending legislation would only take effect if Connecticut, New Jersey and Pennsylvania pass similar legislation.
The North Carolina House passed a bill in April 2021 adopting daylight saving time year-round. The bill was sent to the Senate, but has not progressed. The N.C. Senate failed to pass a similar measure in 2019.
North Dakota's most recent attempt to pass a bill adopting year-round daylight saving time was voted down in the legislature in April 2021. The bill would have taken effect if Minnesota, Montana and South Dakota adopted similar measures.
According to Prairie Public Broadcasting, the bill's main sponsor didn't like the amendment requiring those other three states to be on board first. Montana and Minnesota have passed bills to make the change.
Concurrent Resolution 13 in the Ohio House calls on Congress to enact the Sunshine Protection Act. It passed a committee vote on Nov. 1, 2021, but needs to be approved by the full House and would still need to go through the Senate.
Three Oklahoma state lawmakers have introduced legislation for "locking the clock." All the legislation is still pending.
Oregon legislators passed a bill in 2019 that would keep Oregon on daylight saving time year round. If Congress ever gives the stamp of approval, most of Oregon would no longer “fall back” in November. Because it is in the Mountain Time Zone, Malheur County in Eastern Oregon would be the only place in the state that would not follow this plan.
The Pennsylvania House narrowly passed a measure in April 2021 to make daylight saving time permanent, pending congressional approval. But it hasn't gotten much traction in the Senate.
U.S. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island lent his support to the proposed Sunshine Protection Act but his state has not passed its own legislation toward the change.
Rhode Island has also floated the idea in recent years of joining the Atlantic standard time zone similar to what was proposed for Connecticut and New Hampshire. But those proposals have not made much headway.
South Carolina passed a bill in 2020 to make daylight saving time permanent, but it won't take effect unless there is approval by Congress.
There have been several efforts in recent years to move South Dakota to daylight saving time all year. A vote in the state House in 2020 ended up in a tie, preventing it from going forward. South Dakota is split between the Mountain and Central time zones.
In 2019, Tennessee implemented a law mandating statewide observance of daylight saving time year-round. Again, Congress must act first.
Texas has not approved making daylight saving time permanent despite repeated efforts. There were bills introduced in the Texas House and Senate in 2021 to allow voters to decide if they wanted to be on daylight time or standard time year-round. Neither reached the ballot.
Signed into law in 2020, Utah's move to permanent daylight saving time is contingent on Congressional approval and at least four other western states also making the move. These can include Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Washington or Wyoming.
Vermont lawmakers' most recent attempt to exempt the state from the daylight saving time switchover didn't make it out of a House committee in 2021.
Recent attempts to eliminate the time change have failed. A 2018 House bill was tabled in the rules committee. A House joint resolution in 2021 calling on the state to study the effects of daylight saving time was also left in committee.
Washington state would be on the list of places that don't observe the time change after lawmakers approved permanent daylight saving time in the spring of 2019. It is waiting on Congress.
The West Virginia Senate overwhelmingly passed a bill in 2020 to make daylight saving time permanent, but it failed to make it through the House.
A notable recent effort in Wisconsin happened in 2017. Two legislators proposed eliminating daylight saving time and going with standard time. But the Associated Press reported that after social media backlash and even calls from upset relatives, they scrapped the plan. One of the sponsors, Rep. Michael Schraa, conceded, “This would be a lot better if we just stayed on daylight saving time.”
Wyoming's legislature passed a measure in March 2020 to allow the state to observe year-round daylight saving time, if approved by Congress and if three of these western states also enact it: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Utah.
The legislature introduced another bill in 2021 to adopt standard time as the year-round measure instead. It didn't pass.